Cuneiform For Mac Os X

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  • Old Persian Cuneiform is written in the Java programming language and can run on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux.

This page presents a collection of keyboards supporting Unicode transliterations, implementing a consistent set of input conventions across operating systems.

Custom keyboard layouts are not hard to create or install onWindows, Mac OS X or Unix's X11. However, there are some technicalissues which make it impossible to create a single keyboard layoutwhich works the same across all systems.

In September 2008, part of Cuneiform was released as open source software. One of the missing parts is table analysis, However, Cognitive has promised to release this component in the future. Cuneiform is being ported to Linux, BSD and Mac OS X 4.

The design strategy adopted here makes commonly used characterseasily accessible in keyboards which are adapted from the standardnational keyboards. This means that for much work it will becomfortable to use the transliteration keyboard, and users can easilyswitch to the standard national keyboard when necessary.

Core Characters

On Windows and Mac OS X, the core characters are all reached usingthe comma as a prefix key (dead key); for a list, see the Unicode page.

Accented Vowels

These are usually available in various ways from the nationalkeyboards. In addition, we define a set of fallback keyboardcombinations to provide access to the accented vowels as follows:

  • ,-vowel = vowel + macron
  • ctrl+,-vowel = vowel + circumflex

Determinatives

In ATF, the correct markup for determinatives is to enclose them incurly brackets. In word-processing contexts the superscript styleshould be used.

The commonest ATF determinatives can be written with the following keyboard combinations:

  • ,-d = {d}
  • ,-f = {f}
  • ,-k = {ki}
  • ,-l = {lu₂}
  • ,-m = {m}

Limited support for superscript determinatives is included in theOracc fonts (this currently only applies to Desconsolata). This supportis not intended for general purpose applications, but is provided forthe creation of manuscript matrices where alignment is important andthe use of a tabular layout is not an option for plain text files.These superscript characters are mostly available from the semi-colondeadkey, with a few reached from the colon deadkey.

Mac OS X Keyboards

Installation

  • Download and unzip the keyboard(s) you wish to use and copy them tothe Library/Keyboard Layouts folder in your homedirectory/folder.
  • Log out and log in again.
  • Open the 'International' item under 'SystemPreferences' (or from the flag in your menu bar if you have one) andlook for the relevant name(s) in the list--click on the checkbox toinclude the new keyboard(s) in your list of available keyboards.
  • Ensure that 'Show input menu on menubar is checked.
  • You should now be able to switch keyboards via the icon in themenubar.

Note that Mac OS X will sometimes 'helpfully' switch keyboards when youswitch applications or even windows, so you may want to define akeyboard shortcut to select your favourite transliteration keyboard.Alternatively, if you find that you can work comfortably with thetransliteration keyboard all the time, you can remove all otherkeyboards from your list in the 'International' settings.

Available Key Layouts

  • US Extended/Tlit [/downloads/kb-mac-us-tlit.zip]

Windows Keyboards

Installation

  • Download and unzip the keyboard(s) you wish to use and double-click on the installer appropriate for your computer (for most people this will be the i386 installer.
  • Use the Keyboards item in the Control Panel to add the keyboard to the ones you use and optionally set up a keystroke combination to switch between keyboards.

Available Key Layouts

  • US International/Tlit [/downloads/USIntl-Tlit-win.zip]
18 Dec 2019osc at oracc dot org
Cuneiform
Paradigmfunctional, scientific workflow
Designed byJörgen Brandt
First appeared2013
Stable release
Typing disciplinesimple types
Implementation languageErlang
OSLinux, Mac OS
LicenseApache License 2.0
Filename extensions.cfl
Websitecuneiform-lang.org
Influenced by
Swift

Cuneiform is an open-sourceworkflow languagefor large-scale scientific data analysis.[1][2]It is a statically typedfunctional programming language promoting parallel computing. It features a versatile foreign function interface allowing users to integrate software from many external programming languages. At the organizational level Cuneiform provides facilities like conditional branching and general recursion making it Turing-complete. In this, Cuneiform is the attempt to close the gap between scientific workflow systems like Taverna, KNIME, or Galaxy and large-scale data analysis programming models like MapReduce or Pig Latin while offering the generality of a functional programming language.

Cuneiform is implemented in distributed Erlang. If run in distributed mode it drives a POSIX-compliant distributed file system like Gluster or Ceph (or a FUSE integration of some other file system, e.g., HDFS). Alternatively, Cuneiform scripts can be executed on top of HTCondor or Hadoop.[3][4][5][6]

Cuneiform is influenced by the work of Peter Kelly who proposes functional programming as a model for scientific workflow execution.[7][8]In this, Cuneiform is distinct from related workflow languages based on dataflow programming like Swift.[9]

External software integration[edit]

External tools and libraries (e.g., R or Python libraries) are integrated via a foreign function interface. In this it resembles, e.g., KNIME which allows the use of external software through snippet nodes, or Taverna which offers BeanShell services for integrating Java software. By defining a task in a foreign language it is possible to use the API of an external tool or library. This way, tools can be integrated directly without the need of writing a wrapper or reimplementing the tool.[10]

Currently supported foreign programming languages are:

Foreign language support for AWK and gnuplot are planned additions.

Type System[edit]

Cuneiform provides a simple, statically checked type system.[11] While Cuneiform provides lists as compound data types it omits traditional list accessors (head and tail) to avoid the possibility of runtime errors which might arise when accessing the empty list. Instead lists are accessed in an all-or-nothing fashion by only mapping or folding over them. Additionally, Cuneiform omits (at the organizational level) arithmetics which excludes the possibility of division by zero. The omission of any partially defined operation allows to guarantee that runtime errors can arise exclusively in foreign code.

Base data types[edit]

As base data types Cuneiform provides Booleans, strings, and files. Herein, files are used to exchange data in arbitrary format between foreign functions.

For

Records and pattern matching[edit]

Cuneiform For Mac Os X 10.10

Cuneiform provides records (structs) as compound data types. The example below shows the definition of a variable r being a record with two fields a1 and a2, the first being a string and the second being a Boolean.

Records can be accessed either via projection or via pattern matching. The example below extracts the two fields a1 and a2 from the record r.

Lists and list processing[edit]

Furthermore, Cuneiform provides lists as compound data types. The example below shows the definition of a variable xs being a file list with three elements.

Lists can be processed with the for and fold operators. Herein, the for operator can be given multiple lists to consume list element-wise (similar to for/list in Racket, mapcar in Common Lisp or zipwith in Erlang).

The example below shows how to map over a single list, the result being a file list.

The example below shows how to zip two lists the result also being a file list.

Finally, lists can be aggregated by using the fold operator. The following example sums up the elements of a list.

Parallel execution[edit]

Cuneiform is a purely functional language, i.e., it does not support mutable references. In the consequence, it can use subterm-independence to divide a program into parallelizable portions. The Cuneiform scheduler distributes these portions to worker nodes. In addition, Cuneiform uses a Call-by-Name evaluation strategy to compute values only if they contribute to the computation result. Finally, foreign function applications are memoized to speed up computations that contain previously derived results.

For example, the following Cuneiform program allows the applications of f and g to run in parallel while h is dependent and can be started only when both f and g are finished.

The following Cuneiform program creates three parallel applications of the function f by mapping f over a three-element list:

Similarly, the applications of f and g are independent in the construction of the record r and can, thus, be run in parallel:

Examples[edit]

Smb server for mac. A hello-world script:

This script defines a task greet in Bash which prepends 'Hello ' to its string argument person.The function produces a record with a single string field out.Applying greet, binding the argument person to the string 'world' produces the record <out = 'Hello world'>. Projecting this record to its field out evaluates the string 'Hello world'.

Command line tools can be integrated by defining a task in Bash:

In this example a task samtoolsSort is defined.It calls the tool SAMtools, consuming an input file, in BAM format, and producing a sorted output file, also in BAM format.

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Release history[edit]

VersionAppearanceImplementation LanguageDistribution PlatformForeign Languages
1.0.0May 2014JavaApache HadoopBash, Common Lisp, GNU Octave, Perl, Python, R, Scala
2.0.xMar. 2015JavaHTCondor, Apache HadoopBash, BeanShell, Common Lisp, MATLAB, GNU Octave, Perl, Python, R, Scala
2.2.xApr. 2016ErlangHTCondor, Apache HadoopBash, Perl, Python, R
3.0.xFeb. 2018ErlangDistributed ErlangBash, Erlang, Java, MATLAB, GNU Octave, Perl, Python, R, Racket

In April 2016, Cuneiform's implementation language switched from Java to Erlang and, in February 2018, its major distributed execution platform changed from a Hadoop to distributed Erlang. Additionally, from 2015 to 2018 HTCondor had been maintained as an alternative execution platform.

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Cuneiform's surface syntax was revised twice, as reflected in the major version number.

Version 1[edit]

In its first draft published in May 2014, Cuneiform was closely related to Make in that it constructed a static data dependency graph which the interpreter traversed during execution. The major difference to later versions was the lack of conditionals, recursion, or static type checking. Files were distinguished from strings by juxtaposing single-quoted string values with a tilde ~. The script's query expression was introduced with the target keyword. Bash was the default foreign language. Function application had to be performed using an apply form that took task as its first keyword argument. One year later, this surface syntax was replaced by a streamlined but similar version.

The following example script downloads a reference genome from an FTP server.

Version 2[edit]

Swing-based editor and REPL for Cuneiform 2.0.3

The second draft of the Cuneiform surface syntax, first published in March 2015, remained in use for three years outlasting the transition from Java to Erlang as Cuneiform's implementation language. Evaluation differs from earlier approaches in that the interpreter reduces a query expression instead of traversing a static graph. During the time the surface syntax remained in use the interpreter was formalized and simplified which resulted in a first specification of Cuneiform's semantics. The syntax featured conditionals. However, Booleans were encoded as lists, recycling the empty list as Boolean false and the non-empty list as Boolean true. Recursion was added later as a byproduct of formalization. However, static type checking was introduced only in Version 3.

The following script decompresses a zipped file and splits it into evenly sized partitions.


Version 3[edit]

The current version of Cuneiform's surface syntax, in comparison to earlier drafts, is an attempt to close the gap to mainstream functional programming languages. It features a simple, statically checked typesystem and introduces records in addition to lists as a second type of compound data structure. Booleans are a separate base data type.

The following script untars a file resulting in a file list.

References[edit]

Mac Os X Versions

  1. ^https://github.com/joergen7/cuneiform
  2. ^Brandt, Jörgen; Bux, Marc N.; Leser, Ulf (2015). 'Cuneiform: A functional language for large scale scientific data analysis'(PDF). Proceedings of the Workshops of the EDBT/ICDT. 1330: 17–26.
  3. ^'Scalable Multi-Language Data Analysis on Beam: The Cuneiform Experience by Jörgen Brandt'. Erlang Central. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  4. ^Bux, Marc; Brandt, Jörgen; Lipka, Carsten; Hakimzadeh, Kamal; Dowling, Jim; Leser, Ulf (2015). 'SAASFEE: scalable scientific workflow execution engine'(PDF). Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment. 8 (12): 1892–1895. doi:10.14778/2824032.2824094.
  5. ^Bessani, Alysson; Brandt, Jörgen; Bux, Marc; Cogo, Vinicius; Dimitrova, Lora; Dowling, Jim; Gholami, Ali; Hakimzadeh, Kamal; Hummel, Michael; Ismail, Mahmoud; Laure, Erwin; Leser, Ulf; Litton, Jan-Eric; Martinez, Roxanna; Niazi, Salman; Reichel, Jane; Zimmermann, Karin (2015). 'Biobankcloud: a platform for the secure storage, sharing, and processing of large biomedical data sets'(PDF). The First International Workshop on Data Management and Analytics for Medicine and Healthcare (DMAH 2015).
  6. ^'Scalable Multi-Language Data Analysis on Beam: The Cuneiform Experience'. Erlang-factory.com. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  7. ^Kelly, Peter M.; Coddington, Paul D.; Wendelborn, Andrew L. (2009). 'Lambda calculus as a workflow model'. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience. 21 (16): 1999–2017. doi:10.1002/cpe.1448.
  8. ^Barseghian, Derik; Altintas, Ilkay; Jones, Matthew B.; Crawl, Daniel; Potter, Nathan; Gallagher, James; Cornillon, Peter; Schildhauer, Mark; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W. (2010). 'Workflows and extensions to the Kepler scientific workflow system to support environmental sensor data access and analysis'(PDF). Ecological Informatics. 5 (1): 42–50. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2009.08.008.
  9. ^Di Tommaso, Paolo; Chatzou, Maria; Floden, Evan W; Barja, Pablo Prieto; Palumbo, Emilio; Notredame, Cedric (2017). 'Nextflow enables reproducible computational workflows'. Nature Biotechnology. 35 (4): 316–319. doi:10.1038/nbt.3820.
  10. ^'A Functional Workflow Language Implementation in Erlang'(PDF). Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  11. ^Brandt, Jörgen; Reisig, Wolfgang; Leser, Ulf (2017). 'Computation semantics of the functional scientific workflow language Cuneiform'. Journal of Functional Programming. 27. doi:10.1017/S0956796817000119.

Cuneiform For Mac Os X 10.8

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